Sadaqa means Charity.
SADAQA MUST BE IN THE WAY OF GOD
No reward must be expected in this world. The reward is with your Lord and He knows best how He will reward you.
WHAT IS EXCESS/SURPLUS (AFWA)?
2:219 “…And they ask you how much they are to give, say: The Excess/Surplus (AFWA)…”
Once legitimate needs have been filled at a modest scale – no extravagance is permitted – the rest is surplus. One should not suffer from poverty, nor indulge in luxury.
THE GIFTS OF GOD ARE TO BE UTILIZED PROPERLY AND NOT TO BE SPENT EXTRAVAGANTLY
17:26 And give the relative his rightful portion (haqqahu), and the homeless, and the traveler; and do not waste excessively.
17:27 Those who waste excessively are brothers to the devils, and the devil was to his Lord a rejecter.
25:67. Those who, when they spend, are not extravagant and not stingy, but hold a just (balance) between those (extremes).
IT IS PREFERABLE TO GIVE CHARITY (SADAQA) IN SECRET
2:271 “If you do deeds of charity (Sadaqati) openly, it is well; but if you bestow it upon the needy in secret, it will be better for you, and it will atone for some of your bad deeds. And God is aware of all that you do”.
IT MUST NOT BE FOLLOWED BY REFERENCES AND REMINDERS OF THE CHARITY THAT IS GIVEN
2.262 “Those who spend their wealth in the cause of God and do not follow up for what they spent with reminders of their generosity or hurt the feeling of the recipient, shall get their reward from their Lord; they shall have nothing to fear or to regret”.
NO ANNOYANCE OR INJURY TO FEELINGS MUST BE CAUSED TO THE ONE RECEIVING THE CHARITY
2.263 “A kind word and forgiveness is better than a charitable deed (Sadaqatin) followed by hurt (the feeling of the recipient); and God is self sufficient, forbearing”
WHO IS SADAQAT FOR?
9:60 “Charities (Arabic: Sadaqatu) are for the poor (Arabic: Fuqara) and the needy (Arabic: Masakin), and those who collect them (Amalina Alayha), and those whose hearts are to be reconciled (Mu-alafati qulubuhum) and to free the captives (Arabic: Fil-riqabi) and the debtors (Arabic: Gharimina), and for the cause of God (Arabic: Fi-Sabili-llahi) and (for) the wayfarer (Arabic: Sabili); a duty imposed by God. God is Knower, Wise”
2:273 “(Charities are) for the poor who are straitened for the cause of God, who cannot travel in the land (for trade), the ignorant man thinks them to be rich on account of (their) abstaining (from begging); you can recognize them by their feature/characteristic; they do not ask the people repeatedly; and whatever good thing you spend, surely God knows it”
RATE OF SADAQA (CHARITY) FROM THE SPOILS/BOOTIES OF WAR
8:41 And know whatever you obtained (of Spoils/Booties) from anything, one-fifth shall go to God and the messenger, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the homeless, and the traveler. You will do this if you believe in God and in what We revealed to Our servant on the Day of the Criterion (Furqani), the day the two armies met; and God has control (through standards and measure) over all things.
59:7 Whatever God bestowed upon His messenger from the people of the towns, then it shall be to God and His messenger, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the homeless, and the traveler. Thus, it will not remain monopolized by the rich among you. And you may take what the messenger gives you, but do not take what he prohibits you from taking. And be aware of God, for God is mighty in retribution.
59:8 For the immigrants who are poor and were driven out of their homes and deprived of their properties; they were seeking a grace from God and acceptance, and they supported God and His messenger; these are the truthful ones.
59:9 And those who provided them with shelter, and were believers before them; they love those who immigrated to them, and they find no hesitation in their hearts in helping them, and they readily give them priority over themselves, even when they themselves need what they give away. Indeed, those who overcome their desires are the successful ones.
59:10 And those who came after them saying: “Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us to the faith, and do not place in our hearts any animosity towards those who believed. Our Lord, You are Compassionate, Merciful.”
BENEFITS OF SADAQA
AS A MEANS OF PURIFICATION, CLEANSING, REDEMPTION, ATONEMENT FOR SIN
9:103 – Sadaqa (Charity) as a means for purification
2:196 – Redemption of by way of Sadaqa (Charity) allowed during yearly debate (Hajj).
2:271 – Sadaqa (Charity) given in secret will help cancel some of your sins
2:280 – Sadaqa (Charity) helps a person strained by difficult circumstances.
5:45 – Sadaqa (Charity) as an atonement even for the Jews
58:12 – Sadaqa (Charity) offered by believers before holding the private meeting with the Prophet.
2:272 – Spend for the sake of seeking the Lord’s face. It will be repaid in full.
2:267 – Spend for what is good. Not for things that you yourselves would not like to receive
30:39 – Riba does not increase with God (although you might think you are profiting). It is charity in the sight of God that has manifold increase.
12:88 – God rewards those that give charity
2:270 – God knows whatever you spend and what you vow to spend
2:271 – Charity done in open is good, but charity given in secret is better
4:114 – Secret charity is allowable and good
33:35 – Charity amongst other good deeds has great rewards with your Lord
57:18 – Charitable men and women shall have their goodly loans multiplied as a noble reward (in the Hereafter)
63:10 – Spending (in charity) will be good for you on the Day of Judgment
64:16 – Spending (in charity) will be good for your own souls
COUNTER ARGUMENTS NEGATED
36:47 – Why should we spend if God wanted He could have provided for them Himself
9:75 – Hypocrites say they will give charity if God blesses them with bounty. However, they don’t when they receive it (9:76)
DO NOT SPEND WASTEFULLY
7:26 – Do not squander your wealth senselessly (Spend and give in good measure)
17:27 – Squanderers of wealth are the ilk of Satans
A KIND GESTURE
It can be argued from the following Quranic narrative that so much weight has been given to even a kind gesture, that it can fall within the scope of a charitable deed. Note how heedless acts of worship (by worshippers) are twinned with the refusal of kind gestures.
107.4-7 “So woe to those who maintain Closeness/Attachment (Musalleena), who are absent minded about their Closeness/Attachment (Salatihim). They only want to be seen, and they hold back minor favors.